TBATBA.NET.Net.NET.NetContains specifications and implementations similar to Web Services.ASAPAsynchronous Service Access ProtolASAPAsynchronous Service Access Protola simple extension of Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) that enables generic asynchronous webservices or long-running webservices.AuthXMLAuthXMLSecurity specification submitted to the OASIS Security Services Technical Committee for advancement as part of SAML.BPELBusiness Process Execution LanguageBPELBusiness Process Execution LanguageA description of workflow encoded in XML which can be created by an editor and passed to an enactment engine.CGM OpenComputer Graphics MetafileCGM OpenComputer Graphics MetafileMaking Web graphics standads easy to adopt and practical to use in real world, open systems applications. WebCGM is an application of the ISO-standard Computer Graphics Metafile for electronic documents.CORBACommon Object Request Broker ArchitectureCORBACommon Object Request Broker ArchitectureDistributed architecture which preceded Web Services. Includes Interface Definition Language (OMG IDL), the network protocols GIOP and IIOP, an infrastructure for server-side scalability termed the POA (for Portable Object Adapter), and the CORBA Component Model (CCM). The CCM integrates Enterprise Java Beans, and a mapping to XML provides the most robust support in the industry for XML document usage and interoperability.CIMCommon Information ModelCIMCommon Information ModelCIM comprises various specifications for users, applications etc.CSSCascading Style SheetCSSCascading Style SheetPresentation-related information sent to Web browsers from servers, complementary to HTML.CWMCommon Warehouse MetamodelCWMCommon Warehouse MetamodelStandardizes a basis for data modeling commonality within an enterprise, across databases and data stores. Building on a foundation metamodel, it adds metamodels for relational, record, and multidimensional data; transformations, OLAP, and data mining; and warehouse functions including process and operation. CWM maps to existing schemata, supporting automated schema generation and database loading. This makes it the basis for data mining and OLAP across the enterprise. DAGDirected Acyclic GraphDAGDirected Acyclic GraphDescription of workflow.DCMLData Center Markup LanguageDCMLData Center Markup LanguageEnables an IT organisation to benefit from the utility computing vision of lower costs, increased agility and improved service levels by providing a specification for structured data encoding, replication and recovery.DMTFDistributed Management Task ForceDMTFDistributed Management Task Forcean industry-based organization founded in 1992 to develop management standards and integration technologies for enterprise and Internet environments. DMTF technologies include the Common Information Model and Web-Based Enterprise Management. The DMTF formed an alliance with the GGF in 2003 for the purpose of building a unified approach to the provisioning, sharing, and management of Grid resources and technologies.DNSDirectory Naming ServiceDNSDirectory Naming ServiceDOIDigital Object IdentifierDOIDigital Object Identifiera permanent identifier given to a networked resource so that if its address changes, users will be redirected to its new address. DOIs were conceived by the Association of American Publishers in partnership with the Corporation for National Research Initiatives and is administered by the International DOI Foundation.DOMDocument Object ModelDOMDocument Object ModelThe DOM (Document Object Model) is a platform- and language-neutral interface for Web resources (such as HTML and XML) that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure and style of documents.DRELDigital Rights Expression LanguageDRELDigital Rights Expression LanguageDSMLDirectory Services Markup LanguageDSMLDirectory Services Markup Languagean XML specification for marking up directory services information.Dublin CoreDublin CoreMetadata standard made up of three distinct components: an abstract model which describes the construction of metadata descriptions; a set of vocabularies that provide terms which are referenced in DC metadata descriptions; a set of binding specifications that describe how DC metadata descriptions may be serialised.DuckDuckA bird which has a preference for waterebXMLElectronic Business Extensible Markup LanguageebXMLElectronic Business Extensible Markup Languagesponsored by UN/CEFACT and OASIS, a modular suite of specifications that enable enterprises of any size and in any geographical location to conduct business over the Internet.e-Maile-MailWidely used for the asynchronous transfer of test-based messages or more recently messages with binary attachments. Relies on forwarding and mailbox services. e-mail addresses are necessarily unique and contain a user name and mail server NDS name.EMLEducational Modelling LanguageEMLEducational Modelling Languagea semantically rich information model and binding describing the content and process within "units of learning" from a "pedagogical perspective". EnterpriseEnterprisea specification for transferring data about people and groups (for example, students on a course) between systems such as Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs), Portals, Student Record Systems (SRSs), and Management Information Systems (MISs).FTPFile Transfer ProtocolFTPFile Transfer ProtocolGGFGlobal Grid ForumGGFGlobal Grid Forumthe primary standards-setting body for the Grid. The GGF works with many organizations throughout industry that influence Grid standards and policies, including those for security and virtual organizations.GLUEGLUEGLUEGLUEMetadata schema for resource descriptions.GSIGrid Security InterfaceGSIGrid Security InterfaceH323H323Standard for video conferencing.HTMLHyper-Text Markup LanguageHTMLHyper-Text Markup LanguageWeb standard linking documents using anchors and URLs. May also describe layout and presentation.HTTPHyper-Text Transfer ProtocolHTTPHyper-Text Transfer ProtocolUsed for transferring HTML or other documents (e.g. XML based such as SOAP) over the internet.IEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.IEEEInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc.The IEEE (Eye-triple-E) is a non-profit, technical professional association of more than 365,000 individual members in approximately 150countries. The full name is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., although the organization is most popularly known and referred to by the letters I-E-E-E. Through its members, the IEEE is a leading authority in technical areas ranging from computer engineering, biomedical technology and telecommunications, to electric power, aerospace engineering and consumer electronics, among others. Through its technical publishing, conferences and consensus-based standards activities, the IEEE * produces 30 percent of the world's published literature in electrical and electronics engineering, and computer science areas, * holds annually more than 300 major conferences and * has nearly 900 active standards with almost 500 under development. IEFTInternet Engineering Task ForceIEFTInternet Engineering Task ForceIMSIMS Global Learning ConsortiumIMSIMS Global Learning Consortiumthe most advanced group developing learning technology interoperability specifications. Since its formation as an Educom project in 1997, it has developed a membership that includes almost all the leading technology system suppliers, publishers and many user organisations including leading US universities active in e-Learning. It has since become an independent, subscription-based non-profit organisation, and has recently launched a subsidiary, IMS Europe. While it aims to be technology and pedagogy neutral, it inevitably has to represent the interests of its subscribers. This is why the active participation of user organisations is crucial, and why JISC's membership and CETIS' activities have made it possible for UK interests to be represented. Specifications in clude: Enterprise, Learner design, Learner information package, Reusable definition of competency, Educational objective, Question and test interoperability, Assessment, Digital repository interoperability, Learning design, Metadata, Simple sequencing, Vocabulary definition exchange.Internet2Internet2a consortium of groups from academia, industry, and government formed in 1996 to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies.J2EEJava v2 Enterprise EditionJ2EEJava v2 Enterprise EditionJava programming framework containing many pre-defined patterns such as EJB, JMS, JSF, etc.JMSJava Messaging ServiceJMSJava Messaging ServiceUsed as part of the J2EE architecture to asynchronously transfer data between Java objects.JSR-168Java Specification Request number 168JSR-168Java Specification Request number 168Java Specification Request for portlet to framework API. Invokes actions and transfers HTML fragments for rendering in the hosting Java framework.KerberosKerberosTicket-based authentication/ authorisation mechanism.KOSKnowledge Organisation SystemKOSKnowledge Organisation SystemLDAPLightweight Directory Access ProtocolLDAPLightweight Directory Access ProtocolLegalXMLLegal XMLLegalXMLLegal XMLStandards for electronic court filing, court documents, legal citations, transcripts, criminal justice intelligence systems and others.Liberty AllianceLiberty Alliancean international alliance of companies, nonprofit groups, and government organizations formed in 2001 to develop an open standard for federated identity management, which addresses technical, business, and policy challenges surrounding identity and Web services. The Liberty Alliance has developed the Identity Federation Framework, which enables identity federation and management and provides interface specifications for personal identity profiles, calendar services, wallet services, and other specific identity.LIPLearner Information PackageLIPLearner Information Packagea specification for a standard means of recording information about learners. LIP is designed to allow information about learners, including their progress to date and awards received, to be transferred between different software applications.LOMLearning Object MetadataLOMLearning Object MetadataThis standard specifies the syntax and semantics of Learning Object Metadata, defined as the attributes required to fully/adequately describe a Learning Object. This standard will specify the syntax and semantics of Learning Object Metadata, defined as the attributes required to fully/adequately describe a Learning Object. Learning Objects are defined here as any entity, digital or non-digital, which can be used, re-used or referenced during technology supported learning.MACEMiddleware Architecture Committee for EducationMACEMiddleware Architecture Committee for Educationaims to create an interoperable middleware infrastructure for research and education. MACE develops good-practices documents, designs pilot projects and intercampus experiments, and recommends technical standards. Internet2 working groups related to Grid standards include the Higher Education PKI Technical Activities Group, the Peer-to-Peer Working Group, and the Shibboleth project.MDAModel Driven ArchitectureMDAModel Driven ArchitectureUnifying the Modeling and Middleware spaces, OMG's MDA supports applications over their entire lifecycle from Analysis and Design, through implementation and deployment, to maintenance and evolution. Based on UML models which remain stable as the technological landscape changes around them, MDA-based development maximizes software ROI as it integrates applications across the enterprise, and one enterprise with another.MOFMetaObject FacilityMOFMetaObject FacilityStandardizes a metamodel for object oriented analysis and design, and a repository. (The CWM standardizes a metamodel for data modeling.) Because they are based on the MOF metamodel, UML models can be freely passed from tool to tool using XMI - without the commonality of definition provided by the MOF, this would not be practical. MSSMessaging Service StandardMSSMessaging Service StandardOAI-PMHProtocol for Metadata HarvestingOAI-PMHProtocol for Metadata HarvestingThe OAI-PMH specification standard defines a protocol by which one service (harvester) can gather or "harvest" metadata records from a second service (repository). Requests are sent in the form of HTTP GET or POST requests, and responses are returned as XML documents.OAISOAISOAISOAISOASISOrganization for the Advancement of Structured Information StandardsOASISOrganization for the Advancement of Structured Information StandardsA not-for-profit, global consortium that drives the development, convergence and adoption of e-business standards.ODRLODRLODRLODRLOGSAOpen Grid Services ArchitectureOGSAOpen Grid Services Architecturea service-oriented architecture that specifies a set of distributed computing patterns realized using Web services. It aims to define all the fundamental services that an e-business or e-science application would use such as job and resource management, communications, and security, leaving various working groups within the GGF and other Grid-standards organizations to specify the services' interfaces, semantics, protocols, and other technical details.OKIOpen Knowledge InitiativeOKIOpen Knowledge InitiativeA Mellon funded initiative by MIT and partners to define Open Service Interface Definitions (OSIDs) and an architecture that enables system integration in network environments. OSIDs cover Filing, Dictionary, Scheduling, Authentication, Authorisation, Agent, Id, etc. OKI is unique among Managed Learning Environment (MLE) interoperability specifications in the fact that the OSIDs are APIs- they work at program code rather than at network protocol level. This adds an extra layer of flexibility, but it is more dependent on specific programming languages (Java).OMAObject Management ArchitectureOMAObject Management ArchitectureA set of standard interfaces for standard objects that support CORBA applications. It includes the base-level CORBAservices, the CORBAfacilities, and a large and growing set of Domain Specifications. OMGObject Management Group Inc.OMGObject Management Group Inc. The Object Management Group (OMG) is an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and maintains computer industry specifications for interoperable enterprise applications. Its membership includes virtually every large company in the computer industry, and hundreds of smaller ones. OMG's flagship specification is the multi-platform Model Driven Architecture (MDA), recently underway but already well known in the industry. It is based on the modeling specifications the MOF, the UML, XMI, and CWM. OMG's own middleware platform is CORBA, which includes the Interface Definition Language OMG IDL, and protocol IIOP. The Object Management Architecture (OMA) defines standard services that will carry over into MDA work shortly. OMG Task Forces standardize Domain Facilities in industries such as healthcare, manufacturing, telecommunications, and others. All of the specifications may be downloaded without charge from OMG's Web site. Products implementing OMG specifications are available from hundreds of sources.OpenURLOpen URLOpenURLOpen URLa type of URL that contains resource metadata for use primarily in libraries. NISO, the National Information Standards Organization, has developed OpenURL and its data container (the ContextObject) as an international ANSI standard (Z39.88).OWLWeb Ontology LanguageOWLWeb Ontology LanguagePKIPublic Key InfrastructurePKIPublic Key InfrastructureSecurity infrastructure which uses X.509 certificates as proof of identity for transactions.ProtocolProtocolIn the field of telecommunications, a communications protocol is the set of standard rules for data representation, signalling, authentication, and error detection required to send information over a communications channel. An example of a simple communications protocol adapted to voice communication is the case of a radio dispatcher talking to mobile stations. The communication protocols for digital computer network communication have many features intended to ensure reliable interchange of data over an imperfect communication channel.PURLPersistent Uniform Resource Locator.PURLPersistent Uniform Resource Locator.Functionally, a PURL is a URL. However, instead of pointing directly to the location of an Internet resource, a PURL points to an intermediate resolution service. The PURL resolution service associates the PURL with the actual URL and returns that URL to the client. The client can then complete the URL transaction in the normal fashion (using a standard HTTP redirect).QTIQuestion and Test InteroperabilityQTIQuestion and Test Interoperabilitydesigned to make it easier to transfer information such as questions, tests and results between different software applications. Computers are increasingly being used to help assess learning and knowledge in many educational situations. IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) is a specification for a standard way of sharing assessment data. The main things that IMS Question and Test Interoperability allows you to do are: * Develop online assessments with a range of question types and flexibility in assessment structure; * Share assessment information among different software packages, enabling you to edit and incorporate questions and sections designed by other IMS QTI users into your own assessments; * Facilitate the creation of question banks by subject experts; * Transmit results and learner information to central computing systems or learning management systems.RDFResource Description FrameworkRDFResource Description FrameworkUsed as tool for describing data and information.RESTRepresentational State TransferRESTRepresentational State TransferAn architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems like the Web. Lightweight alternative to SOAP-based Web Services which leverages the POST and GET functionality of browsers. The term REST is now used in a loose sense to describe any simple Web-based interface that uses XML and HTTP without use of Web Service technologies such as SOAP.RSLResource Specification LanguageRSLResource Specification LanguageRSSRDF Site Summary (RSS 1.0) or Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0)RSSRDF Site Summary (RSS 1.0) or Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0)Widely used metadata standard for news feeds. RSS provides a simple mechanism by which news can be described and made available. RSS alerts can be easily embedded in Web pages, aggregated by RSS aggregation tools, viewed in dedicated RSS readers, etc.SAMLSecurity Assertion Markup LanguageSAMLSecurity Assertion Markup Languagean XML standard for exchanging authentication and authorization data between security domains, that is, between an identity provider and a service provider.SCORMShareable Content Object Reference ModelSCORMShareable Content Object Reference Modelprovides a technical architecture for learning objects to be easily shared across multiple learning delivery environments. The SCORM specification describes an architecture built on specifications designed to address the US Department of Defence's (DOD) frustration with not being able to share distance learning courses among its different learning delivery systems. This set of specifications when applied to course content, produces small, reusable learning objects. These can be easily merged with other compliant elements to produce a highly modular repository of learning material. Recently, the DOD's Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)team conducted a successful test of the first version of the SCORM specification at the Institute for Defense Analyses' ADL Co-Laboratory Plugfest. The importance was shown by more than 90 organizations attending , including learning software developers and content providers from industry, government and academia, all pledged support for SCORM. There were numerous demonstrations of interoperability, and this stuff really works. Currently SCORM includes the following specifications: IMS Metadata, Content packaging; IEEE Metadata Dictionary; AICC Launch and Communication API.ShibbolethShibbolethFederated security infrastructure for cross-domain authentication and authorisation. The system is designed to exchange attributes between trusted organizations to authenticate and authorize users to remote resources. A user who desires to access a resource at a remote institution authenticates at a home institution, then the home institution passes the user's attributes securely through a trust relationship to the remote institution.Simple SequencingSimple Sequencinga specification used to describe navigation paths through a collection of learning activities. IMS Simple Sequencing is simple only because it restricts itself to the case of a single user in the role of learner and to a limited number of ways to control sequencing. More complex cases of multiple users and roles are not addressed by the specification. A key benefit of IMS Simple Sequencing is that it allows an instructional designer to describe many different paths through one set of learning activities.SMILSynchronized Multimedia Integration LanguageSMILSynchronized Multimedia Integration Languageenables simple authoring of interactive audiovisual presentations. SMIL is typically used for "rich media"/multimedia presentations which integrate streaming audio and video with images, text or any other media type. SMIL is an easy-to-learn HTML-like language, and many SMIL presentations are written using a simple text-editor.SNMPStandard Network Management ProtocolSNMPStandard Network Management ProtocolMetadata standard and organisational model for resource data.SOAPSimple Object Access Protocol (actually it is no longer an acronym)A Web Services specification (XML schema) for transferring data between Web clients and services. Has a header similar to an e-Mail message and more recently can contain attachments.SpecificationSpecificationA candidate for becoming a standard. Typically, the process of developing a standard starts with user needs and/ or input from a research community active in a related area. This then leads to specification work, defining how interoperability can be achieved in the field under consideration. IMS is an example of a body developing interoperability specifications for e-Learning. Next, these specifications are tested for their validity by user organisations. AICC is one such body, but so are JCIEL projects and CETIS Groups (again for e-Learning). Finally, if a specification is deemed to be valid and widely accepted, it is submitted to a formal (usually international) standards body like IEEE, a volunteer organisation, or ISO, a government sponsored standards bodySRW/USearch/ Retrieve for the WebSRW/USearch/ Retrieve for the Weba low-barrier solution to information retrieval.The SRW/U protocol uses easily available technologies - XML, SOAP, HTTP, URI - to perform tasks traditionally done using proprietary solutions; it can be carried either via SOAP (SRW) or as a URL (SRU). SRW/U allows users to search remote databases. A user sends a searchRetrieve request which includes a query, and the server responds with a searchRetrieve response indicating the number of records that matched the query, possibly along with some of those records formatted according to an XML schema that the user requested. The query is represented in CQL, the "Common Query Language", designed for human readable, human writeable, intuitive queries. It supports very simple queries - for example an - - unqualified single term - - (e.g. "cat") - but maintains the expressiveness of more complex languages, to represent arbitrarily complex queries.SSLSecure Sockets LayerSSLSecure Sockets LayerNow superceded by TLS.StandardStandarda technology, format or method ratified by a respected authority such as the Organisations listed in this document. A standard will therefore be a recognized (nationally or internationally) technology, format or method which is documented in detail and widely used as it has typically been through a process of specification and reference implementation. A standard is usually capable of being compliance-tested and endorsed with an official mark of certification (for example W3C accessibility standards).TLSTransport Layer SecurityTLSTransport Layer SecurityBased on PKI, this forms the basis for most Web message-level security, e.g. in HTTPS. This is the new name for SSL.UDDIUniversal Description, Discovery and IntegrationUDDIUniversal Description, Discovery and IntegrationRegistry specification for Web Services.UMLUnified Modeling LanguageUMLUnified Modeling LanguageStandardizes representation of object oriented analysis and design. A graphical language, its dozen diagram types include Use Case and Activity diagrams for requirements gathering, Class and Object diagrams for design, and Package and Subsystem diagrams for deployment. UML lets architects and analysts visualize, specify, construct, and document applications in a standard way. URIUniform Resource IdentifierURIUniform Resource Identifiera globally unique identifier that identifies a Web resource (either a URL or a URN) constructed according to the HTTP namespace rulesURLUniform Resource LocatorURLUniform Resource Locatoran informal term (no longer used in technical specifications) associated with popular URI schemes: http, ftp, mailto, etc.URNUniform Resource NameURNUniform Resource Name1) An URI that has an institutional commitment to persistence, availability, etc. Note that this sort of URI may also be a URL. See, for example, PURLs. 2) A particular scheme, URNy:, specified by RFC2141 and related documents, intended to serve as persistent, location-independent, resource identifiers.W3CWorld Wide Web ConsortiumW3CWorld Wide Web Consortiuman international organization initiated in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee to promote common and interoperable protocols. It created the first Web services specifications in 2003 and initially focused on low-level, core functionality such as SOAP and the Web Services Description Language (WSDL). The W3C has developed more than 80 technical specifications for the Web, including XML, HTML, and DOM. W3C members are organizations that typically invest significant resources in Web technologies. OASIS is a member, and the W3C has partnered with the GGF in the Web services standards area. Web ServicesWeb ServicesA set of standards and protocols which typically include: HTTP, SOAP, WSDL and UDDI. May also include WSIL, REST, WSRF, WSRP, etc. Provide client-server communication extending what is possible with a Web browser.WSDLWeb Service Description LanguageWSDLWeb Service Description LanguageDescribes where a service can be found (its endpoint via a URL), the names of the methods it provides and their input and output parameters and types.WSILWeb Services Invocation LanguageWSILWeb Services Invocation LanguageA Web Services specification.WS-IWeb Services Interoperability OrganizationWS-IWeb Services Interoperability Organizationan open industry body formed in 2002 to promote the adoption of Web services and interoperability among different Web services implementations. Its role is to integrate existing standards rather than create new specifications. WS-I publishes profiles that describe in detail which specifications a Web service should adhere to and offer guidance in their proper usage. The goal is to provide a set of rules for integrating different service implementations with a minimum number of features that impede compatibility.WSRFWeb Service Resource FrameworkWSRFWeb Service Resource FrameworkA set of Web Services specifications which extend the usual capabilities to enable stateful execution with identification of the invoking agent. Comprises a stack of around 6 specifications including: WS-Addressing, WS-Notification, WS-Security, WS-Eventing, etc.WSRPWeb Services for Remote PortletsWSRPWeb Services for Remote PortletsA Web service for transferring portlet HTML fragments between remote frameworks without any rendering information.X.509X.509Specification for digital certificates used in PKI.XACMLeXtensible Access Control Markup LanguageXACMLeXtensible Access Control Markup Languagea declarative access control policy language implemented in XML.XeventsXeventsXGSPXGSPXGSPXGSPXMIXML Metadata InterchangeXMIXML Metadata InterchangeAllows MOF-compliant metamodels (and therefore models, since a model is just a special case of a metamodel) to be exchanged as XML datasets. Both application models (in UML) and data models (in CWM; see below) may be exchanged using XMI. In addition to allowing model exchange, XMI serves as a mapping from UML and CWM to XML.XMLEXtensible Markup LanguageXMLEXtensible Markup LanguageThe XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a general-purpose markup language for creating special-purpose markup languages which has been developed by W3C.XML SchemaXML Schemaare used for modelling XML documents. XML schemata have a primarily syntactic interpretation, restricting the set of XML documents that can be produced.XqueryXML query languageXqueryXML query languageXRMLXRMLXRMLXRMLXSLTXML Stylesheet TransformationXSLTXML Stylesheet Transformationan XML-based language used for the transformation of XML documents.Z39.50Z39.50a client server protocol for searching and retrieving information from remote computer databases. It is covered by ANSI/ NISO standard Z39.50, and ISO standard 23950. The standard's maintainancy agency is the Library of Congress. Z39.50 is widely used in library environments and is often incorporated into integrated library systems and personal bibliographic reference software. Inter-library catalogue searches for inter library loan are often implemented with Z39.50 queries. ZINGZ39.50 Next GenerationZINGZ39.50 Next Generationcovers a number of initiatives by Z39.50 implementors to make the intellectual/ semantic content of Z39.50 more broadly available and to make Z39.50 more attractive to information providers, developers, vendors, and users, by lowering the barriers to implementation while preserving the existing intellectual contributions of Z39.50 that have accumulated over nearly 20 years. Current ZING initiatives are SRW (including SRU), CQL, ZOOM, ez3950, and ZeeRex. Some (for example, SRW/U) seek to evolve Z39.50 to a more mainstream protocol, while for others (e.g. ZOOM) the purpose is to preserve the existing protocol but hide its complexity.TBATBA